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Proclaiming the 3 angels Messages and

   Abiding in the Father and His Son


Let The Dead Speak

October 2011 Issue

By ITH Ministries

God has given me light regarding our periodicals. What is it?--He has said that the dead are to speak. How?--Their works shall follow them. We are to repeat the words of the pioneers in our work, who knew what it cost to search for the truth as for hidden treasure, and who labored to lay the foundation of our work. They moved forward step by step under the influence of the Spirit of God. One by one these pioneers are passing away. The word given me is, Let that which these men have written in the past be reproduced. Review and Herald - May 25, 1905


Stephen Haskell - The Cross and its Shadow - Part 1

James White - Millennium Bible Adventism - Sermon 1


 Stephen Haskell Picture

Stephen Haskell

The Cross and It's Shadow

Part 1 of 5

Author's Preface

ETERNITY can never fathom the depth of love revealed in the cross of Calvary. It was there that the infinite love of Christ and the unbounded selfishness of Satan stood face to face. The entire system of Judaism, with its types and symbols, was a shadow of the cross, extending from Calvary back to the gate of Eden, and contained a compacted prophecy of the gospel.

At the present day the person who comes to the study of the New Testament through the interpreting lights of the types and symbols of the Levitical services, finds a depth and richness in the study that are found in no other way. It is impossible to have exalted views of Christ's atoning work if the New Testament is studied without a previous knowledge of the deep, bloodstained foundations in the Old Testament gospels of Moses and the prophets.

In every sacrifice, Christ's death was shown. In every cloud of incense His righteousness ascended. By every jubilee trumpet His name was sounded. In the awful mystery of the holy of holies His glory dwelt.

In the light shining from the sanctuary, the books of Moses, with their detail of offerings and sacrifices, their rites and ceremonies, usually considered so meaningless and void of interest, become radiant with consistency and beauty. There is no other subject which so fully unites all parts of the inspired Word into one harmonious whole, as the subject of the sanctuary. Every gospel truth centers in the sanctuary service, and radiates from it like the rays from the sun.

Every type used in the entire sacrificial system was designed by God to bear resemblance to some spiritual truth. The value of these types consisted in the fact that they were chosen by God Himself to shadow forth the different phases of the complete plan of redemption, made possible by the death of Christ. The likeness between type and antitype is never accidental, but is simply a fulfillment of the great plan of God.

In The Cross and Its Shadow, the type and the antitype are placed side by side, with the hope that the reader may thus become better acquainted with the Saviour. It is not the intention of the author of this work to attack any error that may have been taught in regard to the service of the sanctuary, or to arouse any controversy, but simply to present the truth in its clearness.

The book is the result of many years of prayerful study of the types and symbols of the sanctuary service, and is sent forth with a prayer that the reading of it may arrest the attention of the thoughtless, give the Christian new views of Christ's character, and lead many into the sunlight of God's love.

Chapter 1 Light in the Darkness

TO every voyager on the storm-tossed sea of life, the Lord has given a compass which, if rightly used, will safely guide him into the eternal haven of rest. It was given to our first parents at the gate of Eden, after they had admitted sin into this beautiful earth as well as into their own lives. The compass consists of the following words, which were spoken by the Lord to Satan:I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed. (Gen. 3:15 In every heart God has planted an enmity to sin, which, if heeded, will lead to righteousness and eternal life. Any man, whatever his station or rank in life, who will absolutely follow the divine compass placed in his heart, will accept Christ as his Saviour and be led out into the sunlight of God's love and approval. (John 1:9)

As the result of our first parents' eating of the forbidden fruit, over all the earth hung the gloom of the divine decree, In the day that thou eatest thereof dying thou shalt die. (Gen. 2:17) The marks of death and decay were soon seen in the falling leaves and withered flowers. There was no escaping the decree, The wages of sin is death. (Romans 6:23) But a ray of light pierced the darkness when God spoke the following words to Satan:It (the seed of the woman) shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise His heel. (Gen. 3:15) These words revealed the fact that for those who would cherish the enmity against sin which God had placed in the heart, there was a way of escape from death. They would live, and Satan would die; but before his death he would bruise the heel of the seed of the woman. This was necessary in order that the death of Satan might be made sure, and that mankind might escape eternal death. (Heb. 2:14)

Before man was placed on trial, the love of the Father and the Son for him was so great that Christ pledged His own life as a ransom if man should be overcome by the temptations of Satan. Christ was the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. (Rev. 13:8) This wonderful truth was made known to our first parents in the words spoken by the Lord to Satan, It (the seed of the woman) shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise His heel.

In order that man might realize the enormity of sin, which would take the life of the sinless Son of God, he was required to bring an innocent lamb, confess his sins over its head, then with his own hands take its life, a type of Christ's life. This sin-offering was burned, typifying that through the death of Christ all sin would finally be destroyed in the fires of the last day. (Mal 4:1-3)

It was difficult for man, surrounded by the darkness of sin, to comprehend these wonderful heavenly truths. The rays of light which shone from the heavenly sanctuary upon the simple sacrifices, were so obscured by doubt and sin, that God, in His great love and mercy, had an earthly sanctuary built after the divine pattern, and priests were appointed, who served unto the example and shadow of heavenly things. (Heb. 8:5) This was done that man's faith might lay hold of the fact that in heaven there is a sanctuary whose services are for the redemption of mankind.

The prophet Jeremiah grasped this great truth, and exclaimed, A glorious high throne from the beginning is the place of our sanctuary. (Jer. 17:12) David knew of God's dwelling place in heaven, and when writing for the generations to come, he said, He (God) hath looked down from the height of His sanctuary; from heaven did the Lord behold the earth. (Ps. 102:19) The faithful ones have always understood that when they sought God with all the heart, their prayer came up to His holy dwelling-place, even unto heaven. (2 Chr. 30:27)

All the worship in the earthly sanctuary was to teach the truth in regard to the heavenly sanctuary. While the earthly tabernacle was standing, the way into the heavenly tabernacle was not made manifest; (Heb. 9:8) but when Christ entered heaven to present His own blood in man's behalf, God revealed through His prophets much light in regard to the sanctuary in heaven.

To John, the beloved disciple, were given many views of that glorious temple. He beheld the golden altar, on which, mingled with fragrant incense, the prayers of earthly saints are offered up before God. In vision he saw the candlestick with its seven lamps of fire burning before the throne of God. The veil into the most holy was lifted, and he writes, The temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in His temple the ark of His testament. (Rev. 11:19)

It is in this true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man, that Christ pleads His blood before the Father in behalf of sinful men. (Heb. 8:2) There is the throne of God, surrounded by myriads of the angelic hosts, all waiting to obey His commands; (Ps. 103:19,20) and from there they are sent to answer the prayers of God's children here on earth. (Dan. 9:21-23)

The heavenly sanctuary is the great power-house of Jehovah, whence all the help necessary to overcome every temptation of Satan is sent to each one who is connected with it by faith.

The heavily laden electric car, with its slender arm reaching up to the wire above, through which it receives strength from the power-house miles away, is a fitting illustration of the Christian. As long as the connection is unbroken, through the darkest night, the car runs smoothly up and down hill alike, not only shedding light on the immediate track ahead, but casting its bright rays of light into the darkness far and near. But the instant the connection is broken, how great is the change! The car remains in darkness, unable to go forward.

So it is that Christ, our great High Priest in the heavenly sanctuary, reaches His hand down over the battlements of heaven to clasp the hand of every one who will reach up by faith and take hold of the proffered help. The one whose faith lays hold of that help, can pass securely over the steepest hills of difficulty, his own soul filled with light while diffusing light and blessing to others. As long as he by faith keeps a firm hold of God, he has light and power from the sanctuary above; but if he allows doubt and unbelief to break the connection, he is in darkness, not only unable to go forward himself, but a stumbling-block in the way of others.

The one who allows nothing to break his connection with heaven becomes an earthly dwelling-place for the Most High; for thus saith the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy; I dwell in the high and holy place, with him also that is of a contrite and humble spirit. (Isa. 57:15) He who separates from sin and puts it far from him, becomes a temple of the Holy Ghost. (1 Cor. 6:19,20) God loves to dwell in the hearts of His people, (Eph. 3:17-20) but sin cherished in the heart prevents His Spirit from abiding there. (1 John 3:15) Christ knocks at the door of every heart, inviting all to exchange sin for righteousness, that He may come in and abide with them. (Rev. 3:20)

There are three temples brought to view in the Bible, the heavenly temple, the dwelling-place of the Most High, where Christ intercedes in our behalf; the temple of the human body, where God's Spirit rules and reigns; and the earthly temple, with its typical services, designed to teach mankind how to receive divine help from the great storehouse above, so that God can honor them by abiding with them continually. The earthly sanctuary with its types and symbols is like the powerful lenses of the telescope, which make it possible to view heavenly bodies that otherwise would be invisible. To the eye of the ignorant those wonderful lenses appear like ordinary glass; but the astronomer, who longs to know of the wonders of the heavens, is filled with rapture as he gazes through them.

In like manner the Christian who will study the typical service of the earthly sanctuary, not as a collection of dry, lifeless relics of ancient worship, but as a wonderful art gallery, where, by the hand of a master-artist, the different parts of the marvelous plan of redemption are portrayed, will be astonished at the beauty revealed. The figures fairly-speak to him, as it were, from the canvas. They tell the beautiful story of the Saviour's love until his very soul is filled with rapture as he gazes upon them. He sees the vivid picture of the priest in snow-white robe leading the red heifer out to the rough uncultivated valley, there to offer it a sacrifice for sin. He sees him sprinkle its blood on the rough stones of the valley, to teach that Christ died for the most worthless, for the veriest outcast. Who can gaze on that picture without having his heart filled with love for such a compassionate Redeemer?

Again he views a picture of the destitute sinner, longing to be free from sin; and beholding his wealthy brethren pass with their lambs for sin-offerings, the poor ones with their pigeons and doves, he sinks back into despondency, for he has no living thing to offer. Then the light of hope springs into his face as one tells him, Only a handful of flour will answer. And as the sinner watches the priest offer the crushed wheat as an emblem of the blessed body to be broken for him, and hears him say, Thy sin is forgiven, his heart leaps for joy, as did the heart of the poor man by the pool of Bethesda, who had no one to help him, when the blessed Master told him to take up his bed and walk. (John 5:2-9)

If the one who longs to know more of Christ and His infinite love, will study the types and symbols of the earthly sanctuary, connecting each with its glorious antitype, his soul will be filled with rapture. Like the lenses of the telescope, they reveal, wondrous beauties in the character of our blessed Redeemer, beauties that are revealed in no other way.

There is a separate and distinct heavenly lesson taught by each of the different types and symbols of the earthly sanctuary service; and when they are all viewed together, they form a wonderful Mosaic painting of the divine character of Christ as none but a heavenly artist could portray it.

Names Given the Heavenly Sanctuary by Different Bible Writers

Thy dwelling-place, by Solomon, in 2 Chron, 6:39.
A palace, by David, in Psalm 48:3.
His holy temple, by David, in Psalm 11:4.
Temple of God, by John, in Rev. 11:19.
Habitation of Thy holiness, by Isaiah, in Isa. 63:15.
True tabernacle which the Lord pitched, by Paul, in Heb. 8:2.
My Father's house, by Jesus, in John 14:2.
Place of His habitation, by David, in Psalm 33:14.
His holy habitation, by Jeremiah, in Jer. 25:30.
The sanctuary, by Paul, in Heb. 8:2.
Holiest of all, by Paul, in Heb. 9:8.

Names Given the Earthly Sanctuary

A worldly sanctuary, Heb. 9:1.
The first tabernacle, Heb. 9:8.
A figure for the time then present, Heb. 9:9.
Patterns of things in the heavens, Heb. 9:23.
Not the very image of the things, Heb. 10:1.
Holy places made with hands Heb. 9:24.
Figures of the true, Heb. 9:24.
The temple, 1 Cor. 9:13.

The Body of the Christian is Called the Temple

Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up...He spake of the temple of His body. John 2:19,21.
Know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost? 1 Cor. 6:19.
If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are. 1 Cor. 3:17.

Chapter 2

 The Tabernacle

THE tabernacle as pitched in the wilderness was a beautiful structure. Around it was a court enclosed with linen curtains, which were suspended by silver hooks from pillars of brass trimmed with silver. Viewed from any side, the tabernacle was beautiful. The north, south, and west sides were formed of upright boards, ten cubits high, covered with gold within and without, and kept in position by silver sockets underneath, and by bars overlaid with gold, which passed through golden rings, and extended around the building. (Ex. 26:15-30) The front, or east end, was enclosed by a curtain of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of an embroiderer. (Ex. 36:37) It was hung upon five pillars of acacia wood overlaid with gold, and added much to the beauty of the entrance. The rich rainbow tints of the curtain, inwrought with cherubim, which formed the door of the building where God promised to dwell, was a beautiful shadow of the entrance to the heavenly sanctuary. Here, with a rainbow of glory encircling His throne, the Father sits, while ten thousand times ten thousand angels pass to and fro at His command. (Rev. 4:2-4; 5:11)

The roof, or covering, of the tabernacle consisted of four curtains of cloth and skins. The inside curtain, like that at the entrance of the tabernacle, was of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen, with golden cherubim wrought in it by a cunning embroiderer. (Ex. 26:1) This formed the ceiling, which was a faint representation of the canopy of glory above the throne of God, with the myriads of angels ready to fulfil His commands. (Eze. 1:28) Over this was a curtain of goats' hair, above that a covering of rams' skins dyed red, and over all a covering of badgers' skins, all forming a perfect protection from the weather. (Ex. 26:1-14) The different colors in the coverings, blending with the golden wall and the gorgeous entrance curtain, or veil, as it was called, combined to make a structure of surpassing glory.

Over the tabernacle rested the pillar of cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night, which guided the Israelites in all their wanderings. (Ex. 40:38) In the midst of the desert heat there was a cool, refreshing shelter beneath the shade of the cloudy pillar for those who served in the tabernacle or worshiped in its court, while without was the scorching heat of the desert. (Isa. 32:2) What a beautiful type of the covering God spreads over His people in the midst of this wicked world, so that it is possible to dwell in the secret place of the Most High and abide under the shadow of the Almighty One (Ps. 91:1) while in the midst of the turmoil and strife of this wicked world.

At night, when the intense heat abated and darkness covered the desert, then above the holy tabernacle hung the cloud, now a great pillar of fire, in the sight of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeys. (Ex. 40:38) God's immediate, visible presence lighted up the entire encampment, so that all could walk safely through the darkness. What an expressive type was thus given of the Christian's walk! There may be no visible light; but when the light of God's presence surrounds him, his pathway is light. David knew this when he wrote, Blessed is the people that know the joyful sound:they shall walk, O Lord, in the light of Thy countenance. (Ps. 89:15) The weakest trusting child of God can have the blessed privilege of being guided by the light of God's countenance, safe from the pitfalls of Satan, if he will surrender his heart to God.

Within the golden walls of the tabernacle, priests of divine appointment performed a work representing in types and symbols the plan of redemption.

The work of Christ has two distinct phases, one performed in the first apartment of the heavenly sanctuary, the other in the second apartment. He offers salvation free to every one. Many accept and start out on the Christian pathway. Christ reaches down His infinite arm to encircle and support every one who calls upon His name, and no power of earth or Satan can force a child of God out of His protecting care. (John 10:28,29) The only way any can be lost is by letting go their hold upon that infinite hand. Like Peter, if they take their gaze from Christ and fix it upon the sea of life, they sink, unless, like him, they cry out, Lord, save me, and are rescued by the Saviour. (Matt. 14:28-31)

The work of Christ is illustrated by the parable of the marriage of the king's son. All the guests, both bad and good, are gathered at the marriage; but when the king comes in to examine the guests, all are ejected except those who are clothed with the wedding garment of Christ's righteousness. Many are called, but few are chosen. (Matt. 22:1-14)

There were two apartments in the sanctuary, or tabernacle. In the first apartment a service was performed daily throughout the year which typified the work of inviting the guests and gathering them to the marriage. On one day at the end of the year a service was performed in the second apartment which typified the work of choosing out from among the many that have accepted the call, those who are worthy of eternal life, as illustrated in the parable by the king examining the guests.







Type Antitype
Heb. 8:1-5. The earthly sanctuary was a shadow of the heavenly sanctuary. Rev. 11:19. There is a temple in heaven.
Heb. 9:1-3. The earthly sanctuary had two apartments. Heb. 9:24. The heavenly sanctuary also has two apartments.

Chapter 3

History of the Sanctuary

THE history of the typical service, of which the earthly tabernacle was a visible representation, began at the gate of the garden of Eden, where our first parents brought their offerings and presented them before the Lord. Abel showed his faith in the promised Saviour by bringing an animal. He not only presented the shed blood of the sacrifice, but he also presented the fat to the Lord, showing faith in the Saviour and a willingness to put away his sin. (Gen 4:4, Heb. 11:4)

Before the people of God went into Egypt, their worship was simple. The patriarchs lived near the Lord, and did not need many forms or ceremonies to teach them the one grand truth that sin could be atoned for only by the death of One who was sinless. They needed only a rough altar and an innocent lamb to connect their faith with the infinite Sin-bearer.

As the patriarchs journeyed from place to place, they set up their altars and offered their sacrifices, and God drew near to them, often showing His acceptance of their offerings by sending fire from heaven to consume the sacrifices.

Of all the sacrifices recorded in the book of Genesis, none comes so near the great antitypical offering as the one required of Abraham when God called him to offer his only son. The test of faith was not simply in the fact that Isaac was his only legitimate son, but Abraham understood that through Isaac's posterity the long-promised Messiah was to come; and in offering Isaac, Abraham was cutting off his only hope of salvation, as well as that of the world. But his faith wavered not. He believed that the same God who had performed a miracle in giving him a son, could bring that son from the dead to fulfil the promise that He had made. (Heb 11:17-19)

The Lord chose the exact spot for the offering of Isaac. He said to Abraham, Get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of. (Gen. 22:2) As Abraham and Isaac went on that memorable journey, they were directed by the Lord to Mount Moriah; and when they came to the place, Abraham built an altar and bound Isaac upon it, ready to sacrifice him; but the Lord stayed his hand.

The spot where such loyalty to God was shown was ever afterward honored by the Lord. But the devil as well as the Lord watched over this place. He knew it was sacred to Jehovah, because there God had tested the faith of the man He honored by calling him. His friend. (James 2:23)

For more than four hundred years after the children of Israel entered the promised land, Satan held this place. It was a stronghold of the enemy in the midst of Israel. But it was finally captured by David, who made it the capital of his kingdom; afterward Jerusalem was called the City of David.

The threshing-floor of Ornan the Jebusite, where the angel of the Lord appeared to David, was on this same spot. The prophet told David to erect an altar on the threshing-floor, and there David made a special consecration to the Lord. A few years later the temple, which was erected without sound of hammer, occupied this same plot of land. (2 Chron. 3:1) God had conquered, and He designed the place should ever be hallowed by His presence. But His people were unfaithful, and when the Lord of light came to His own temple, He was despised and crucified, and the holy city and the site of the sacred temple passed into the hands of the Gentiles.

Satan is guarding this spot vigilantly at the present time, intending never again to relinquish his hold upon it. But the time is coming when, in spite of Satan and all his host, the same Saviour who was rejected in His own temple shall place His feet upon the Mount of Olives, (Zech 14:4-11) and the Mt of Olives shall be split in two, making a very large valley and the entire site of old Jerusalem will be purified; then the New Jerusalem will come down from heaven (Rev. 21:2-3) and rest upon that spot made sacred by the consecration of God's chosen people. God's glorious heavenly temple will be upon Mount Zion [Moriah], never-more to fall into the hands of the enemy. God says, I...will set My sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore.

Having briefly outlined the subject from Eden lost to Eden restored, we will go back to the time Israel came out of Egypt.

Subjected to a life of incessant toil and surrounded by heathen darkness, the children of Israel lost sight of the significance of their simple sacrifices. On account of their servitude, they were deprived of the privileges enjoyed by the ancient patriarchs, of spending much time communing with God, and they drifted very near to Egyptian idolatry. When God brought them out of Egypt, He proclaimed His law from Sinai, and then gave them the same system of worship the patriarchs had followed. But He had to deal with them as with children. Because they could not grasp the truths without the simple illustrations, God gave them the system of worship that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob had followed, but in kindergarten form, just as we would use the kindergarten methods to teach children lessons which adults can easily comprehend.

They had drifted so far away that they could not comprehend how God could live with them, being-invisible, so God said, Let them make Me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them. (Ex. 25:8) The pillar of cloud above the tabernacle and God's visible presence manifested within, helped the Israelites more easily to comprehend the real abiding presence of the Lord with them.

This sanctuary was a shadow, or model, of the heavenly sanctuary; and the service was so planned by the Lord that all the work was a type, or representation, of the work the Son of God would do on earth and in heaven for the redemption of the lost race. It was the most wonderful object-lesson ever given to mankind.

The sanctuary was completed, while the Israelites were encamped at Sinai, and during their forty years' wanderings in the wilderness they carried it with them. When they reached the promised land, it was set up in Gilgal for a few years, and then removed to Shiloh, (Joshua 5:10:11; 18:1; 19:51) where it remained for many years. When David was fleeing from Saul, the tabernacle was in Nob, (1 sam. 21:1-6) for there the priests set the show-bread before the Lord each Sabbath day. It was next set up in the high place at Gibeon. (1 Chron. 16:39; 21:29) The tabernacle remained in Gibeon until removed by Solomon to Jerusalem. Josephus tells us that Solomon had the tabernacle which Moses had pitched, and all the vessels that were for ministration to the sacrifices of God, removed to the temple.

David desired to build a house for the Lord; but on account of his many wars the Lord directed that his son should build, the house. When Solomon was established on his throne, he erected a magnificent structure, and dedicated it to the Lord. God showed His acceptance by His glory filling the temple. Solomon did not plan the temple himself; God revealed the plan to David, as He had that of the tabernacle to Moses. David was not to see it built, but when he delivered the plan for the building to Solomon, he said, The Lord made me understand in writing by His hand upon me, even all the works of this pattern. (1 Chron. 28:11-19)

The history of Solomon's temple is really a history of the religious experience of the children of Israel. When they departed from the Lord, the temple was neglected, and sometimes even suffered violence. It was pillaged by Shishak, king Egypt. (1 Kings 14:25,26) At the instigation of Jehoiada it was repaired by Jehoash, (2 Kings 12:4-14) who himself afterward robbed it of its treasures to propitiate the Syrians. (2 Kings 12:17,18) Ahaz a little later not only spoiled it of its treasures, but also defiled its holy precincts. (2 Kings 16:14,18) Under the reign of the good king Hezekiah the temple was purified and its worship restored; (2 Chr. 29:3-35) but even Hezekiah stripped it of its treasures to procure a treaty with the Assyrians. (2 Kings 18:13-16) Again it was polluted by the idolatrous worship of Manasseh. (2 Kings 21:4-7) The good king Josiah, when but a youth of eighteen repaired and purified the temple, and again restored its worship. (2 Kings 22:3-7) Finally, on account of the unfaithfulness of the chosen people of God, the holy temple was burned to the ground, and its treasures carried to Babylon. (2 Kings 25:13-17)

It was nearly seventy years before the rebuilding of the temple by Zerubbabel was completed and the house dedicated with great rejoicing. (Ezra 6:16-22) Herod spent forty- six years in repairing Zerubbabel's temple, until in the days of Christ it was a magnificent structure. (John 2:20)

God's presence abode with His people in the dwelling-places they prepared for Him, from the time the tabernacle was erected in the wilderness, all the way down through the history of their spiritual wanderings until that memorable day when the types celebrated for four thousand years met their Antitype on the cross of Calvary. Then with a great noise the glorious veil of Herod's magnificent building was rent from the top to the bottom, as the Lord departed forever from His temple. (Matt. 27:50) Previous to this, the services were directed of God; henceforth they were but a hollow mockery, for God had left the sanctuary, (Matt. 23:37,38) The temple remained standing until 70 A. D., when it was destroyed by the Romans. To-day the sacred spot is covered by a Mohammedan mosque.

The Epistle to the Hebrews shows that the leading apostle clearly taught the antitypical fulfillment of the types and shadows celebrated for so many years. It should not be forgotten that the gift of the Spirit of prophecy and the Sabbath of the Lord Were always connected with the sanctuary service. We have no reason to doubt that during the early history of the Christian church, the subject of the sanctuary and the antitypical work of Christ in heaven was clearly understood by the Christians; but when the Bible was taken from them, when the Sabbath of the Lord was hidden, and the voice of the Spirit of prophecy was no longer heard directing the church, then they lost sight of the beautiful antitypical work represented by the ancient sanctuary service.

But the time arrived for the, opening of the great judgment in heaven, when the Father and the Son, with their retinue of holy angels, passed in state into the most holy place of the heavenly sanctuary. No earthly pageant could ever compare with that majestic cortege. God designed that it should be recognized on earth, and He caused a message to be proclaimed to the inhabitants of earth, directing their attention to the movements of the Son of God. This is known as the first angel's message of Rev. 14:6, 7. A large company accepted the message and their attention was centered on the Saviour; but they did not understand the antitypical work of the sanctuary, and hence they expected the Saviour to come to the earth. Instead of coming to the earth, however, He went into the second apartment of the heavenly sanctuary, to take up the work of the judgment.

This company, who had been gathered out by the message of the first angel, loved their Lord; and in their longing desire to find why He had not come to the earth, they drew so near to Him that He, in answer to their earnest prayers, directed their attention to the heavenly sanctuary. There they saw the ark of God's testament containing His holy law, and they acknowledged its claims upon them, and began to keep holy the Sabbath of the Lord. The sanctuary service, the Sabbath, and the Spirit of prophecy were ever united in olden times; and when light from the antitypical sanctuary service came to the people of God, He gave them the Spirit of prophecy again, to reveal to them the solemn truths in regard to Christ's ministry in heaven, which otherwise they would not have comprehended.



Built by Moses in the wilderness, Ex. 40:1-38.
Stored in Solomon's temple, 1 Kings 8:4; 1 Chron. 22:19.


Built by Solomon, 2 Chron. chap. 2-5.
Destroyed by the Babylonians, 2 Chron. 36:17-19.
Rebuilt by Zerubbabel, Ezra 6:13-15.
Repaired by Herod, John 2:20.
Forsaken by the Lord, Matt. 23:37, 39.
Destroyed by the Romans, Matt. 24:2, fulfilled 70 A. D.


Chapter 4

 The Ark

THE ark was the central figure of the entire sanctuary. The broken law contained in the ark was the only reason for all the sacrificial services, both typical and antitypical. When the Lord gave directions for making the sanctuary, His first instruction was, They shall make an ark of shittim (acacia) wood:two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof. (Ex. 25:10) It was overlaid within and without with pure gold, with a crown of gold around the top.

The cover of the ark was called the mercy-seat, and was of pure gold. On either end of the mercy-seat were cherubim of beaten gold, with their wings stretched forth covering the ark, and their faces looking reverently toward the law of God contained therein.

There is great consolation in the fact that the Lord Himself covered the broken law with a mercy-seat; and then He, the merciful God, took His position upon that seat, so that every sinner who comes confessing his sins, may receive mercy and pardon. That mercy-seat, with the cloud of glory, the visible representation of God's presence, and its covering cherubim, is a figure, or shadow, of the throne of the great God, who proclaims His name as merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth. (Ex. 34:5-7)

Within the ark was the Lord's own copy of that holy law given to mankind in the beginning. Where no law is, there is no transgression. (Romans 4:15) Sin is not imputed when there is no law; (Romans 5:13) therefore the Lord could never have driven our first parents from the garden of Eden (Gen. 3:23) on account of their sin, if they had been ignorant of His holy law. How God proclaimed His law to our first parents He never revealed in His Holy Book; but when it was necessary again to make His law known to His people, after their long servitude in Egypt, He had the account of that awe-inspiring event recorded, so that the generations to come might know that God came from heaven and spoke the ten commandments with an audible voice in the hearing of all Israel. (Deut. 4:10-14)

After God had declared the ten commandments from the top of Mount Sinai, He wrote them upon two tables of stone, and gave them to Moses, with the instruction, Thou shalt put them in the ark.(Ex. 31:18) The ark was placed in the most holy apartment of the sanctuary, where no mortal eye, except that of the high priest, could gaze upon it, and he on only one day in the year, when he went in to sprinkle the blood of the Lord's goat before and upon the mercy-seat to atone for the broken law within the ark.

The wages of sin is death, (Romans 6:23) and the broken law demands the death of every sinner. In the typical service the blood was sprinkled above the law (Lev. 16:15) to show faith in the blood of Christ, which would free the righteous from the demands, or curse, of the law. (Gal. 3:13)

God communed with His people from the cloud of glory which rested above the mercy seat, between the cherubim. (Ex. 25:21,22) These golden cherubim with outstretched wings were a representation of the covering cherubim that surround the throne of God in heaven. (Ez. 28:14)

There can be no government without law. The very suggestion of a kingdom is always connected with law. There could be no judgment without a law as a standard of judgment. God declares that as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law. (Romans 2:12) All God's commandments are righteousness. (Ps. 119:172) The establishment, or foundation, of His throne is righteousness and judgment. (Ps. 97:2 margin)

There was nothing in the ark save the two tables of stone, (1 Kings 8:9) is the divine record. The pot of manna was laid up before the Lord, (Ex. 16:33) and Aaron's rod that budded was laid up before the testimony. Num. 17:10) Paul, enumerating all the contents of the most holy place in the order that he has, leads some to suppose that at some time the pot of manna and Aaron's rod were placed in the ark; but the ark was made for the one purpose of containing God's holy law. (Duet. 10:1,2)

No profane hands were allowed to touch the ark. Uzzah was smitten for reaching forth his hand to steady it when the oxen which were drawing it stumbled; (2 Sam. 6:6) and thousands of the men of Bethshemesh were smitten for looking into it. (1 Sam. 6:19) None but the Levites were allowed to carry the sacred chest. (Duet. 10:8)

On the occasion of a battle with the Philistines, the wicked sons of Eli, the high priest, carried the ark on to the battlefield, and it was captured by the Philistines; but God impressed their hearts to return it to Israel with a golden trespass-offering. (1 Sam. 4:3-10) When Solomon's temple was built, the ark was placed in the holy of holies, where it remained until taken by the prophet Jeremiah and hid in a cave in the mountains before the Babylonian captivity, lest it should fall into the hands of the Gentiles. (2 Maccabees 2:1-8)

The writer of the Apocrypha states that the ark will again be brought forth in the last times. Whether that copy of the law which God gave at Sinai will be brought out again or not, there will be a copy of that same law, traced as with a pen of fire in the heavens, before the wondering gaze of the inhabitants of earth, in connection with the second coming of Christ to the earth. (Ps. 97:6, 98:2)

That holy law is the standard by which all will be judged. That law will condemn the guilty; for sin is the transgression of the law. (1 John 3:4) The same law that condemns the sinner will witness to the righteousness of those who, through faith in Christ, have tried to walk in harmony with its holy precepts, humbly seeking forgiveness for every transgression. (Romans 3:21)





Type Antiype
Ex. 26:33. The ark was placed in the most holy place. Rev. 11:19. The ark was seen in the heavenly sanctuary.
Ex. 25:21, 22. God's visible presence was manifested above the mercy seat. Ex. 34:57. The Lord gives His name as Merciful and Gracious and Longsuffering.

Chapter 5

 The Golden Candlestick

THE golden candlestick with its seven golden lamps was on the south side of the first apartment of the sanctuary. It was made of gold beaten into shape by the workman's hammer. (Ex. 25:31-37) It took many a hard and skilful blow to form those delicate flowers and bowls; but the candlestick was to be made after the heavenly model to teach heavenly lessons to mankind. (Ex. 25:40 margin)

John, the beloved disciple, was permitted to look into the first apartment of the sanctuary in heaven, and there he beheld seven golden candlesticks. He also beheld the Saviour in the midst of the glorious candlesticks, of which the earthly one was a shadow.

Christ, in explaining to John the meaning of what he had seen, said, The seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches. (Rev. 1:12-20) The number seven in the Bible denotes a complete number. The candlestick of beaten gold with its seven bowls for the lamps was an example and shadow of heavenly things. (Heb. 8:5) Its seven branches, each holding aloft a lamp, represented the church of God.

The individual that forms a part of the church of the firstborn, which are enrolled in heaven, (Heb. 12:23) will often feel the workman's hammer; for we are His (God's) workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works. (Eph. 2:10) Then, beloved, think it not strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto you. (1 Peter 4:12) It is only the Master-workman fashioning you to become a part of the great church enrolled in heaven.

The candlestick in the type held seven lamps. The beloved disciple also had a view of the heavenly lamps, of which the earthly ones were models. Before the throne of God in heaven he saw the seven lamps of fire, which are the seven Spirits of God. (Rev. 4:2,5) The church of Christ is the candlestick to hold up the light in the midst of moral darkness. The Saviour says, Ye are the light of the world. The Spirit of the Lord is said to be the eyes of the Lord which run to and fro throughout the whole earth, strongly to hold with them whose heart is perfect toward Him. (2 Chron 16:9 margin) Then the brightness of our light depends upon the condition of our heart. The Spirit is searching throughout the earth for those whose hearts are perfect toward God, and it will strongly hold with such ones: their light will not burn dim.

The lamps in the earthly sanctuary were to burn continually. (Lev. 24:2) So the Christian is ever to let the Spirit of God rule in his life, and thus shed its light abroad.

None but the high priest could perform the sacred work of lighting the lamps in the earthly sanctuary; he trimmed and lighted them each morning and evening. (Ex. 30:7,8) So none, but our High Priest, who was tempted in all points like as we are, Heb. 4:15 can give us the help we need. In the morning we need His Spirit to direct us during the day; and at evening we need it to enlighten our minds as we review the work of the day, that we may detect the flaws and dropped threads in the warp of our lives. The trimming and lighting of the lamps was a beautiful type with a daily lesson for us at the present time. It was a link in that marvelous threefold typical chain of service celebrated each morning and evening, while the whole multitude of the people were praying without the sanctuary. (Luke 1:10) The whole burnt-offering in the court, the incense, and the burning lamps within the sanctuary, all were a wonderful type which will never lose its beauty.

Whenever an individual will fulfil in his very soul the antitype of the typical whole burnt-offering, that is, wholly surrender himself to God, place himself and all he has upon the altar, to be consumed in God's service as He directs, that individual, whether he be rich or poor, learned or ignorant, will be covered with the fragrant incense of Christ's righteousness, and his name will be enrolled with the church of the first-born in heaven; and here in this sin-cursed earth, as he goes to and fro, he will be a part of the great candlestick, and from his life will shine out the bright rays of the Spirit of God.

The question may arise in many hearts, How may I become a light-bearer in the earth? When Zerubbabel was trying under very adverse circumstances to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem, he came to a time when the difficulties appeared like mountains before him. Then the Lord sent His prophet with a message to help and encourage him. Zechariah was given a view of the golden candlesticks, and was also shown whence the oil came that supplied the lamps. He saw two olive-trees, one on the right side of the bowl and the other on the left side, which through golden pipes kept the lamps supplied with oil, that they might burn brightly. (Zech. 4:1-4) The prophet asked the angel the meaning of what he saw. In reply the angel said: This is the word of the Lord unto Zerubbabel, saying, Not by might, nor by power, but by My Spirit, saith the Lord of hosts. (Zech. 4:6) Then he gave a message to Zerubbabel to go forward, and said that the mountain of difficulties would become a plain before him, and that as surely as his hands had laid the foundations of the house of the Lord, so surely would he finish it.

Zerubbabel was walking by faith in the words of the prophets who had foretold how and when Jerusalem would be rebuilt; (2 Chron. 36:20-23; Jer 25:12; Hosea 1:7) but those prophets were dead, and he now faced difficulties that he might be tempted to think the prophets never expected would arise. Then God sent a living prophet with a message of encouragement, to keep the light burning, and enable Zerubbabel to press forward and complete the work prophesied of by the dead prophets.

We cannot comprehend the word of the Lord without the Spirit to enlighten our minds. The light shines to the degree in which we take the word and risk our all upon it:and as we come into difficulties in following out the instruction given through the dead prophets, the Lord sends messages of strength and encouragement through the living prophet, to enable us to press forward to victory.

These are the two sons of oil (light-givers), that stand by the Lord of the whole earth. It is the Spirit of God accompanying the word which has been committed to the people, that will give light. Whatever the prophets of God have revealed to man in the past, is light; and those who have adhered strictly to the testimony of God by His prophets, although it may be hundreds of years after the testimony was given, are spoken of favorably by the living prophet, as Zechariah spoke to Zerubbabel.







Type Antitype
Ex. 40:24. Golden candlestick in the first apartment of earthly sanctuary. Rev. 1:12. John saw the seven golden candlesticks in heaven. Ex. 25:37; 40:25. There were seven lamps upon the candlestick.
Ex. 25:37; 40:25. There were seven lamps upon the candlestick. Rev. 4:2, 5. John saw seven lamps of fire before the throne of God in heaven.
Ex. 30:7, 8. The high priest trimmed and lighted the lamps in the earthly sanctuary. Rev. 1:12-18. John saw Christ,our High Priest, in the midst of the candlesticks in heaven.
Lev. 24:2. The lamps were burned continually, always shedding forth light. John 1:9. The Holy Spirit lightens every soul that comes into the world, whether he accepts or rejects it.


Chapter 6

The Table of Showbread

THE table of showbread was placed on the north side of the first apartment of the sanctuary. The table was two cubits long, a cubit and a half in width, and a cubit and a half in height. It was overlaid with pure gold, and like the altar of incense was ornamented with a crown of gold around the top. (Ex. 25:23-30; 40:22)

On the Sabbath day the Levites made twelve loaves, or cakes, of unleavened bread. (1 Chr. 9:32; Lev. 24:5) These cakes were placed on the table hot, each Sabbath day, (Lev. 24:8; 1 Sam 21:3-6; Matt. 12:3,4) arranged in two rows, or piles, six in a row, with pure frankincense on each row. (Lev. 24:6,7)

During the entire week the bread lay on the table. By some translators it is called the bread of the presence. At the end of the week it was removed and eaten by the priests, (Lev. 24:9) This explains why Ahimelech the priest had no common bread on the Sabbath to give to David, as the priests were accustomed to eat the hallowed bread on that day. (1 Sam. 21:4) It was not lawful to bake common bread upon the Sabbath; the command is very plain that all bread for Sabbath use in the homes should be baked upon the sixth day. This is that which the Lord hath said, To-morrow is the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord:bake that which ye will bake to-day, and seethe (or boil) that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning. (Ex. 16:22) But the Lord directed that the Levites should prepare the showbread every Sabbath. (1 Chr. 9:32)

All the service connected with the table of showbread was done upon the Sabbath. The bread was prepared on the Sabbath, and while hot was placed upon the table. The following Sabbath it was removed, and eaten by the priests on that day.

The priests served unto the example and shadow of heavenly things; (Heb. 8:5) therefore there is a heavenly lesson for us in the antitype of the showbread. It was a continual offering, ever before the Lord. It taught that man was wholly dependent upon God for both temporal and spiritual food, and that both alike come to us through the One who ever liveth to make intercession for us before the Father. (Heb. 7:25)

This, like all other types of the sanctuary service, met its fulfillment in Christ. He is the true-bread. He said, I am the living bread which came down from heaven; if any man eat of this bread, he shall live forever:and the bread that I will give is My flesh. Then He added, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man,...ye have no life in you. (John 6:51-53) Even the disciples could not comprehend Christ's words, and they murmured. Jesus read their thoughts, and said unto them, It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life. (John 6:63) His word is the true bread, of which we are to eat.

As the bread in the presence of God was taken out from the sanctuary and eaten, so Jesus said, The word which ye hear is not Mine, but the Father's which sent Me. (John 14:24) The Bible came direct from God. God gave it to Christ, Christ signified it by His angel unto the prophets, and the prophets gave it to the people, (Rev. 1:1)

We often read the Bible as a mere form of godliness, or to get something to give to others; but if we would receive its life-giving power into our own souls, we must have it hot, warm from heaven.

There is no more appropriate time to let God speak to our own souls through His word than on the Sabbath day, when we lay aside our worldly cares and business, and take time to study the Holy Word and let it come into our inmost heart until we hear God speak to us, not to another.

The priests were not only to set the hot bread upon the table on the Sabbath day, but later that same bread was to be eaten and become a part of their very being. God designed that His people should each Sabbath day gain a fresh experience in divine things, which would make them better fitted to meet the temptations of the week. The soul that never gains a deeper experience on the Sabbath than on any other day, fails to keep the Sabbath as God would have him. (Eze. 20:12) We may have a few minutes of quiet study of the word on the Sabbath day, when we hear the Lord speaking to us individually; but if the words are not incorporated into our lives, they give us no abiding strength. As the priests ate the bread prepared the Sabbath before, they assimilated it, and thus received strength for daily duties.

Peter evidently understood this truth when he admonished the church to desire the sincere milk of the word that they might grow thereby, and he said if they did this they would be a holy priesthood. (1 Peter 2:2-5) Here is the secret of true Christian living. Eternal life does not come to the soul through forms and ceremonies. They are all right in their place; but eternal life results from feeding upon the true bread which comes from the presence of God, God's Holy Word, the blessed Bible.








Type Antiype
Ex. 25:30. Showbread always before the Lord. John 6:48. Christ said, I am that bread of life.
Lev. 24:5. There were twelve cakes of the showbread the number of the tribes of Israel. 1 Cor. 10:17. In speaking of the church, Paul says, We being many are one bread and one body.


Chapter 7

 The Altar of Incense and Its Service

THE golden altar, or altar of incense, was before the veil in the first apartment of the sanctuary. It was a cubit square and two cubits high, with a horn upon each corner. The altar was made of the shittim, or acacia wood, and all overlaid with pure gold. Around the top was a beautiful crown of gold, and beneath the crown were rings, in which were staves for carrying the altar, all overlaid with pure gold. (Ex. 30:1-6)

Within the crown of gold encircling the top of the altar, holy fire was kept constantly burning, (Ex. 30:8) from which ascended the fragrant smoke of the incense placed upon it every morning and evening. The perfume pervaded the entire sanctuary, and was carried by the breeze far beyond the precincts of the court.

The incense, composed of an equal weight of four fragrant gums and resins, was prepared by divine direction. It was very sacred, and the person making any like it, even for a perfume, was to be cut off from among the people. ( Ex. 30:34,38)

The high priest alone was to perform the sacred duty of placing incense before the Lord on the golden altar. (Ex 30:7,8)

The altar and the fragrant incense in the earthly sanctuary were an example of the work our great High Priest is performing for us. (Heb. 8:5) Our minds should often dwell upon the work of Christ in the heavenly sanctuary. (Heb. 3:1) Moses, when directed to build the sanctuary, was caused to see the heavenly model of which he was to make a shadow. (Ex. 25:40 margin) John, the beloved disciple, was permitted several times in vision to behold the Saviour officiating in the heavenly sanctuary. He saw a heavenly being standing at the glorious golden altar. He beheld the incense offered upon that holy altar. How it must have thrilled his soul when he saw that precious incense added to the poor, faltering prayers of the struggling saints here on the earth:He saw those prayers, after the incense was added, ascend up before God, and they were accepted because they were made fragrant with the incense. (Rev. 8:3,4 margin) We know not what we should pray for as we ought; but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered. And He that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because He maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God. (Rom. 8:26,27) But even the Spirit could not present the prayers of sinful mortals before a pure and holy God without adding the fragrant incense.

When Jesus was preparing His disciples for His separation in person from them, He assured them, Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in My name, He will give it you. (John 16:23) The power in a name is the character of the individual that bears the name. The name of the precious Redeemer is honored, and every petition presented in that name is granted in the courts of heaven because Jesus lived a sinless life. He knew no sin. The prince of this world had nothing in Jesus, (John 14:30) for He was pure and holy, without one stain of sin. It is Christ's righteousness that makes our prayers accepted before the Father.

John saw the smoke of the incense with the prayers of the saints ascend up before God. Our prayers, made fragrant by the righteousness of Christ our Saviour, are presented by the Holy Spirit before the Father. To John in vision it appeared like a cloud of smoke bearing the prayers and fragrant incense up before the throne of the Infinite One. The weakest saint who knows how to press his petitions to the throne of grace in the name of Jesus, the sinless One, has all the treasures of heaven at his command. Having the richest millionaire of earth sign his checks at earthly banks would in no way compare with the privilege of the Christian.

The name of Jesus is often added to prayers in a meaningless way. Many prayers are spoken for a mere form of worship, and rise no higher that the head of the one who offers them; but every prayer of faith reaches the ear of the God of the universe. David understood what was typified by the incense, and prayed, Let my prayer be set forth before Thee as incense; and the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice. (Ps. 141:2)

As there was no other part of the daily ministration that brought the priest so directly into the presence of God as the offering of incense; so there is no part of our religious service that brings us so close to the Master as the pouring out of our souls in earnest prayer. Anciently, as in the antitype, the prayer of faith entered the holy dwelling-place of God in heaven. (2 Chr. 30:27)

A lamb was burned upon the brazen altar in the court each morning and evening at the time the incense was renewed upon the altar. (Ex. 29: 38-40)The golden altar was an altar of continual intercession, representing the prayers of God's people coming up before Him continually; while the brazen altar was an altar of continual atonement, representing the putting away and destruction of sin, the only thing that separates us from God and prevents our prayers from being answered.

The morning and evening lamb was offered as a whole burnt-offering for the entire congregation, showing their desire to put away sin and consecrate themselves to the Lord, so that their prayers could ascend from off the altar with the fragrant incense.

In ancient Israel the people living near the temple gathered at the hour of sacrifice, and often the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense. (Luke 1:10) The habit of morning and evening prayer in the home came from this typical worship. The faithful Israelite who was far from the temple would pray with his face toward the temple where the incense was ascending each morning and evening. Josephus says the incense was offered as the sun was setting in the evening, and in the morning as it was rising.

The type was beautiful, but the antitype far surpasses the type. In the heavenly sanctuary there is an inexhaustible supply of Christ's righteousness. In the type the incense was always ascending, typifying that at any time, day or night, when a struggling soul cries out for help, or gives thanks and praise for help received, his prayer is heard. In the morning, as the duties of the day seem more than human strength can bear, the burdened soul can remember that in the type a fresh supply of incense was placed on the altar each morning, and from out the antitypical heavenly sanctuary help will come for the day to the one that claims divine help in the name of Jesus. (Duet. 33:25) In the evening, as we review the work of the day and find it marred by sin, there is blessed comfort, as we kneel confessing our sins, to know that if heaven the fragrant incense of Christ's righteousness will be added to our prayers; as in the type the cloud of incense shielded the priest, (Lev. 16:13) so Christ's righteousness will cover the mistakes of the day; and the Father, looking upon us, will behold only the spotless robe of Christ's righteousness. If we realized more fully the privilege of prayer, we would often say I will greatly with the prophet, rejoice in the Lord,...for He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of righteousness. Is. 61:10)

Not all prayers that are accepted before God are answered immediately, as it would not always be best for us; but every prayer to which the fragrance of Christ's righteousness has been added, is lodged on heaven's altar, and in God's good time will be answered. John saw those who officiated before the throne of God holding in their hands vials full of incense, which, he said, were prayers of saints. (Rev. 5:8 margin) These prayers had been accepted, for the added incense was so fragrant that John said the vials were full of incense.

In the typical work the one who attempted to use the fragrant perfume of the incense for his own use was cut off from among the people of God; there was to be no imitation of the incense. (Ex. 30:37,38) No fire was to be used for burning the incense except that taken from the altar before the Lord. Nadab and Abihu, while under the influence of strong drink, offered strange fire before the Lord, and were slain, (Lev. 10:1-10) Their fate is an object-lesson of all who fail to appreciate the perfect righteousness of Christ, and appear before the Lord clothed in the filthy rags of their own righteousness. (Is. 64:6)

When the plague was smiting the hosts of Israel, Aaron the high priest, put incense on the censer and ran among the people, and the plague was stayed. (Num. 16:46-48) The sacred incense was burned only on the golden altar and in the censers of the priests. The other Levites were not allowed to burn it. (Num. 16:3:35) The priests who performed the work which typified Christ's work in a special sense, were the only ones who could burn incense before the Lord.

The horns of the golden altar were often touched with the blood of the sin-offering, thus typifying that it was Christ's death that made it possible for our prayers to be answered and for us to be clothed in His righteousness. As the fragrance of the incense was not confined to the sanctuary, but was carried in the air to the surrounding neighborhood; so in like manner, when one is clothed with Christ's righteousness, an influence will go out from him which those that come in contact with him will recognize by its fragrance as of heavenly origin.





Type Antitype
Ex. 30:1-3;40:26. The golden altar was before the veil. Rev. 8:3. There is a golden altar in heaven before the throne of God.
Ex. 30:7, 8. Incense was burned on the golden altar by the high priest every morning and evening. Rev. 8:3,4. Much incense is added to the prayers of all saints, and they then ascend before God.
Ex. 30:9; Lev. 10:1-9. The one who should burn incense with strange fire was to be destroyed. Isa. 64:6. One clothed with his own righteousness will be destroyed.


Chapter 8

 Christ Our High Priest

THE Saviour has many titles, for He hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name (Heb. 1:4) than all the angelic host of heaven. Of the many titles bestowed upon Him, there is none more dear to humanity than the Lamb of God (John 1:29,36) and High Priest. By virtue of these two offices He lifts poor fallen humanity up where they can share in His glorious kingdom of grace, even while in the midst of this sin-cursed earth.

In the typical service the one who realized he was in sinner must bring a lamb for a sin-offering. The priest could not officiate for him without this offering. (Lev. 4:27-29) That entire service was but a great kindergarten lesson, making the way of salvation so simple that none could fail to comprehend it. When we realize that we have sinned, we remember our Lamb, confess our sins, and in His name they are forgiven; then He officiates as High Priest in our behalf before the Father. He pleads the merits of His blood, and covers our life, stained with sin, with the robe of His spotless righteousness, and we stand before the Father accepted in the Beloved. Eph. 1:6) How can we fail to love Him who offered His life for us? Christ could say of His Father, Therefore doth My Father love me, because I lay down My life. {John 10:17) Even the infinite love of the Father for His Son was increased by that act.

In the type, the blood of the sin-offering was shed in the court, and then the priest entered the sanctuary with the blood to present it before the Lord. Heb. 9:12) The Saviour gave His life a sacrifice for sin here upon the earth; and as He entered the heavenly sanctuary as High Priest, He is called the Forerunner. Under no circumstances, except as He enters within the veil of the heavenly sanctuary, is that name applied to the Saviour. (Heb. 6:19)

In all monarchical forms of government the forerunner is a familiar character. In gorgeous uniform, with waving plumes, he rides before and announces the approach of the royal carriage. While he is always hailed with joy by the waiting crowds, yet he is not the center of attraction; their eyes do not follow him as he passes on, but are turned down the road whence he came to get the first glimpse of the royal personage of whom he is the forerunner.

Of the many condescensions on the part of our blessed Master, this is one of the grandest. When He entered heaven a mighty Conqueror over death and the grave, before the entire heavenly host and representatives of other worlds, He entered a forerunner for us. He presented the wave sheaf, those brought forth from their graves at the time of His resurrection, as a sample of the race He had died to redeem, (Eph. 4:8; Matt. 27:52) thus directing the attention of that wonderful assemblage down the road whence He came to watch -- for royalty? -- yes, for royalty made so by His precious blood. (Rev 1:6; 5:10) It is only a company of poor, frail mortals stumbling along and often falling by the way; but when they reach the heavenly gate, they will enter heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ. (Rom. 8:17)

It meant much for us that Christ entered within the veil as our Forerunner, for all heaven is watching the church of God on earth. When tempted by the enemy to doubt God's love and care, remember that on account of the great sacrifice made, you are so dear to the Father that he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of His eye. (Zech. 2:8) Heaven and earth are closely united since Christ entered within the veil as our Forerunner. The attention of every angel in glory is centered upon those striving to follow in Christ's footsteps. 1 Peter 2:21) Are they (the angels) not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation? (Heb. 1:14) Why should we falter by the way, and disappoint the heavenly host who are watching for us to come over the same road that our Forerunner passed as a mighty Conqueror over death and the grave?

But let us never forget that it is a blood-stained pathway. Who, when He was reviled, reviled not again; when He suffered, He threatened not; but committed Himself to Him that judgeth righteously. (1 Peter 2:23) We can not follow in His footsteps in our own strength. For that reason in all things it behooved Him to be made like unto His brethren, that He might be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people. For in that He Himself hath suffered being tempted, He is able to succor them that are tempted. Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus. Heb. 2:17,18; 3:1)

In the earthly sanctuary not only the high priest but also common priests officiated, because it was impossible for one man to perform all the work; but it required the work performed by all the priests in the typical services to represent the work of our High Priest. The work of one year was taken as a type of the entire work of our High Priest. During the year the priests (plural, both high and common) went always into the first tabernacle, accomplishing the service of God. This continued all the year, except one day; on that day, the service changed and into the second (apartment) went the high priest alone, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and for the errors of the people. (Heb. 9:6,7) These priests served unto the example and shadow of heavenly things. (Heb. 8:5)

When Christ entered heaven, He went as the Antitype of the earthly service God had ordained, and entered upon His work within the first veil of the heavenly sanctuary. When the typical work ordained by God in the first apartment of the earthly sanctuary had fully met its Antitype, He passed through the second veil (Heb. 9:3) into the glorious apartment of the antitypical holy of holies. There He is to perform the marvelous service which will end in the blotting out and total destruction of the sins of the righteous, nevermore to be remembered by the redeemed host nor by God Himself.

When Christ stands upon the sea of glass, and places the glittering crowns upon the heads of the company who have traveled the road made sacred by the foot prints of their Forerunner, albeit with faltering step and through falling tears, and who are, clad in robes made white in the blood of the Lamb, He will see of the travail of His soul and be satisfied. (Isa. 53:11) He will rejoice over them with singing, and all heaven will ring with melody as the angels who have served under their Commander in the work of saving souls, join in singing, Zech. 3:17) Blessing, and honor, and glory, and power, be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb forever and ever. (Rev. 5:13)


Heb. 7:25. Is able to save to the uttermost all that come unto God by Him.
Heb. 4:15. Is touched with the feeling of our infirmities. Was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin.
Heb. 2:18. For in that He Himself hath suffered being tempted, He is able to succor them that are tempted.
Heb. 2:17. He is a merciful and faithful High Priest.
Heb. 7:25. He ever liveth to make intercession for us.


Chapter 9

 Office and Work of the High Priest

IN early times the patriarchs were priests over their own households, and God's original design was that the eldest son should take his father's place as priest of the family; but the plan of God was often thwarted by the sins of the eldest son. The Lord's words to Cain would indicate that he was debarred of his inherited position on account of sin:If thou doest well, shalt thou not have the excellency? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. (Gen. 4:7) Sin prevented Cain from having the excellency.

On account of sin, Reuben, the first-born of Jacob, lost the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power, which was his inherited right. (Gen. 49:3,4) When but a youth, Joseph cultivated those traits of character that gave him the excellency above his brethren. It is very probable that the coat of many colors given him by his father, (1 Chron. 5:1,2) was interpreted by his brethren as indicating his accession to the priesthood.

God gave His First-born for the redemption of the world; and for that reason in God's plan the first-born always inherited special privileges. To him came a double portion of his father's estate, the priesthood, and, the first-born in the descent from Isaac, the honor of being the progenitor of the Messiah. If the first-born proved unworthy, his inheritance was given to others, as in the case of Reuben, where Judah became the progenitor of Christ, Joseph received the double portion, and Levi received the priesthood. (Deut 21:17; 1 Chron. 5:1,2; Num. 3:6,9) The first-born was so often unworthy on account of sin that when the Lord brought Israel out of Egypt, He said, I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel instead of all the first-born of Israel:therefore the Levites shall be mine. (Num 3:12,13) It was because the tribe of Levi stood true to God in time of a crisis, that God chose them to serve before Him; (Duet. 33:8-11) and when the service of the sanctuary was established, the priesthood was given to Aaron and his sons, and the remainder of the tribe of Levi were to do the work of the sanctuary under the direction of the priests. (Ex. 28:1) Aaron was appointed to officiate as high priest and his sons as common priests, the eldest son to take the office of high priest on Aaron's death. (Ex. 29:29)

The consecration to the priest's office was a most imposing ceremony. Aaron was clothed in the garments which were made for him under God's direction. Several sacrifices were slain, and the blood of the ram of consecration was touched to the tip of the right ear, the thumb of the right hand, and the great toe of the right foot of both Aaron and his sons, signifying that their ears, hands, and feet were consecrated to the service of God. Unleavened bread, denoting sincerity and truth, 1 Cor. 5:8) and the right shoulder of the sacrifice of consecration, were all put upon Aaron's hands and upon his sons' hands. The priests were to typify the One of whom Isaiah said, The government shall be upon His shoulder. (Isa. 9:6) They were to bear the burdens of the people. The anointing oil and the blood was then sprinkled upon Aaron and his sons, typifying the blood of Christ and the Holy Spirit, which alone could fully qualify them to fill the holy office. (Ex. 29:5-35)

The priesthood remained unbroken in Aaron's family until the sins of Eli and his sons made it necessary to change, and for a time Samuel, an Ephrathite, filled the office of leading priest in Israel. (1 Sam. 1:1,19,20) Abiather was thrust out of the office of the priesthood in fulfillment of the prophecy given to Eli. (1 King 2:26,27) But Zadok, who filled the office of high priest in the time of David and Solomon, was thought by many to be a grandson of Eli. As the Israelites departed from the Lord, the priesthood became corrupt, until in the time of Christ it was bought and sold for money.

God designed that the high priest should more nearly represent Christ than any other priest. The work of every priest was a type of Christ's work, but the common priests performed work only in the court and the first apartment of the sanctuary, while the high priest officiated not only in the court and the first apartment, as well as the common priests, but went alone into the holy of holies, (Heb. 9:7) Aaron at times offered burnt-offerings on the brazen altar in the court. (1 Chron. 6:40)

It was impossible for one man to perform all the work of the sanctuary that typified the work of Christ, and for that reason there was a company of common priests to assist the high priest. It is always a rule that a higher official can fill the offices below him. The high priest offered burnt-offerings in the court and sin-offerings in the first apartment. Paul speaks of the high priest offering the sin-offerings where the blood was taken into the sanctuary. (Heb. 13:11) In the sin-offerings for the priests and the congregation the blood was taken within the sanctuary. Lev. 4:3-7, 13-18) It seems very fitting that the high priest should offer the sin-offerings for the common priests and the entire congregation. In most of the sin-offerings the flesh was eaten in the holy place, and the blood was not taken into the sanctuary. (Ex. 30:7,8) While the high priest could perform any work in the first apartment that other priests could perform, there was a daily service in the first apartment of the sanctuary that none but the high priest could perform. He alone could burn incense upon the golden altar before the Lord, and trim and light the lamps on the golden candlestick. Each morning and evening, twice every day throughout the entire year, the high priest officiated in the first apartment of the sanctuary. (Ex. 30:7,8)

The crowning service of the whole year was on the tenth day of the seventh month, when the high priest entered the holy of holies alone to make atonement for the sins of the people. Upon his breast in the stones of the breast-plate were inscribed the names of the twelve tribes, typifying Christ our High Priest as He thinks upon us individually, and confesses our names as they come up in review before God.


Chapter 10

 The Priests

THERE were two orders of the priesthood, the Melchizedek and the Levitical. The Melchizedek order preceded the Levitical order. In Abraham's day the priest Melchizedek was king of Salem as well as priest of the Most High God. (Gen. 14:17-20) Although there is not much said in the Bible of the Melchizedek order of the priesthood, it was superior to the Levitical order, for Christ was made a priest after the order of Melchizedek. (Heb. 6:20)

The Levitical order extended from the time Israel came out of Egypt until the cross; since that time we have the priesthood of Christ, of which all earthly priests were a type. Christ being a priest after the order of Melchzedek, we are now living under the Melchizedek order of the priesthood. There are many particulars given in regard to the Levitical order; and as all the Levitical priests served unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, when we study the Levitical priesthood, we are really studying the priestly work of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

The Levitical priesthood was divided into twenty-four courses, (1 Chron. 24:1-19; 2 Chron. 8:14) Each course had its chief or governor of the sanctuary. (1 Chron. 24:6,31) This continued down to the time of Christ. (Luke 1:8) When the Saviour ascended to heaven, He led a multitude of captives; (Ephes 4:8, margin.) and when John in vision was shown the first apartment of the heavenly sanctuary, with its seven lamps of fire burning before the throne of God, he saw four and twenty elders seated upon four and twenty seats, and they worshiped the Lamb, saying, Thou hast redeemed us to God by Thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation; and hast made us unto our God kings and priests. (Rev. 4:4; 5:8-10) In this we see the antitype of the twenty-four courses of priests. The chiefs, or elders, of each course have seats of honor, and they are kings and priests after the order of Melchizedek. Thee remainder of the multitude Christ took into heaven are not mentioned, but it is reasonable to suppose that they constitute the courses of which the four and twenty elders are the chiefs.

Only the descendants of Aaron were allowed to serve as priests, (Numbers 3:10) In the type the priest who could not prove his genealogy direct from Aaron, the first high priest, was cast out of the priesthood; (Ezra 2:26) so in the antitype, the Christian who can not prove his direct connection with Christ, the heavenly High Priest, will never become one of the royal priesthood. (1 Peter 2:9; Rev. 20:15)

God has provided for the support of all the different orders of the priesthood by the same method. The earth is the Lord's, and the fullness thereof. (Ps. 24:1) The silver and the gold and the cattle upon a thousand hills all belong to Him. (Ps. 50:10-12) Man is placed as steward over the Lord's heritage, and the Lord claims one tenth of everything on the earth as His portion. All the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the Lord's: it is holy unto the Lord. (Lev. 27:30-33)

Of the tithe the Lord says, I have given the children of Levi all the tenth in Israel for an inheritance, for their service which they serve, even the service of the tabernacle of the congregation. (Numbers 18:20-24) The individual who selfishly uses the entire ten portions for himself, not reserving one tenth for the Lord, is guilty of robbing the Lord. Will Lord Will a man rob God? Yet ye have robbed Me. But ye say, Wherein have we robbed Theme? In tithes and offerings. (Mal. 3:8-11) Abraham paid a faithful tithe to Melchizedek; (Gen. 14:17-20) and Jacob promised to pay tithe of all, even if he received only food and raiment. (Gen. 28:20-22) Those who belong to the great household of faith and are children of Abraham, will do the works of Abraham. (John 8:39) They will pay a faithful tithe for the support of those who, like the Levitical priests, give their lives for the advancement of Christ's kingdom upon the earth. Just as the priest lived of the things of the temple,...even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel. (1 Cor 9:9-14)



Type Antitype
Heb. 8:5. The earthly priests served unto the example and shadow of heavenly things.  Heb. 10:10. We are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 
1 Chron. 24:1-19, 31. Priests were divided into twenty-four courses, with a chief over each course. Rev. 4:4, 5; 5:8-10. John saw twenty-four elders in the first apartment of the heavenly sanctuary.
Ezra 2:61, 62. There was a record kept of all who had a right to officiate in the priest's office. Rev. 20:15. None will be saved whose names are not found written in the book of life.

Continued Next Month

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James S. White
Bible Adventism Series

The Millennium

 TEXT: And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them; and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshiped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead lived not again, until the thousand years were finished. Rev.20:4, 5
THE word millennium signifies a thousand years. There is a general agreement in applying the word to the period named in the text; but all do not agree as to the character of the millennium. The popular view of this subject is, that the world is to be converted, and that all men will become holy. This happy state of things, it is said, will continue one thousand years, during which time Christ will reign with his people spiritually. And at the close of the millennium, Christ will come the second time, and the judgment will take place.

But the sacred Scriptures do not teach that at any period of time all men will be converted to God. There were but few righteous men from Adam to Moses. And their numbers in the Jewish age, compared with the multitudes of the unbelieving, were very small. Neither does God's plan in the Christian age embrace the conversion of all men. The gospel must be preached to all nations. Thus God visits "the Gentiles to take out of them a people for his name." Acts 15:14

Among the finally saved will not be found all of any one generation, or all of any one nation; but some out of every age and every tongue will join in the song to the Lamb: "Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation." Rev.5:9.

From the very nature of the case, the conversion of the world is an impossibility. God is the same during all time. He deals with men and nations impartially. The devil is the same, excepting that the experience of six thousand years has made him more artful in seducing men and women into sin. The fallen race is the same, only that each succeeding generation degenerates physically, mentally, and morally, till the world becomes fully ripe for her final doom.

 This is seen in the metallic image of Dan.2. Here five universal kingdoms are the subject of prophecy. Four of these pertain to the mortal state, one to the immortal. The four earthly monarchies, Babylon,
Persia, Grecia, and Rome, are severally represented by gold, silver, brass, and iron. We not only see in the symbol the depreciation of value from gold to silver, to brass, and to iron; but the last divided condition of earthly governments, just before the opening glories of the immortal kingdom, is represented by iron mixed with miry clay.

God's plan to convert sinners, and to save all who would obey him, and believe in Jesus, has been in operation about six thousand years. A crucified and risen Jesus has been preached with the Holy Spirit sent down from Heaven for more than eighteen centuries; yet the world has not been converted. And the prospect of its conversion to Bible holiness never looked darker than at the present time. In the forcible words of another we would inquire:

"And what are the present prospects of a church that has set out in all confidence to convert the world? How may those now putting on the harness boast of greater expected success than is warranted by the experience of those who have put it off after having fought the good fight? The prophets could not convert the world; are we mightier than they? The apostles could not convert the world; are we stronger than they? The martyrs could not convert the world; can we do more than they? The church for eighteen hundred years could not convert the world; can we do it? They have preached the gospel of Christ; so can we. They have gone to earth's remotest bounds; so can we. They have saved `some;' so can we. They have wept as so few believed their report; so can we. They have finished their course with joy, and the ministry they have received to testify of the gospel of the grace of God; we can do the same. Can we reasonably hope to do more?

`It would take to all eternity to bring the millennium at the rate that modern revivals progress, ' said the venerable Dr. Lyman Beecher, before a ministerial convention, held close by old Plymouth rock. And what hope is there that they will progress more rapidly? Is it in the word of God? Glad would we be to find it there. Sadly we read that `evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving and being deceived.'

"Has God a mightier Saviour - a more powerful Spirit? Has he another gospel which will save the world? Where is it? Is there any way to the kingdom other than that which leads through much tribulation? Is there another way to the crown besides the way of crosses? Can we reign with Him unless we first suffer in his cause?

"No doubt the world might be converted if they desire to know the Lord. And so, had all who heard received with gladness the word of God, the world might have been converted within twenty years of the day of Pentecost.

If each Christian had brought one single soul to God with each successive year, the calm splendors of the millennial era might have shone upon the declining years of the apostles of Jesus Christ. But instead of this, ages of darkness came on. The world did not repent, but the church apostatized.

If the gospel were to convert the world, we should have seen tokens of it ere this. But where are such omens to be found? Shall we look at Judson, who labored ten long years before one sinner yielded to the claims of the gospel? Shall we look to the dense darkness of the heathen world? Shall we look at the formalism of the professed church? Shall we look at the wide extension of infidelity? Shall we look at the abounding of iniquity and the waxing cold of love? Shall we look at a world where eighteen hundred years of toil and tears have not brought one-twentieth part of mankind even to a profession of true Christianity; and where not more than one-fifth claim for themselves the dubious title of Christian nations? Shall we look over a world in which we cannot find one nation of Christians, nor one tribe of Christians, nor one city of Christians, nor one town of Christians, nor one village of Christians, nor one hamlet of Christians, save here and there where a questionable faith has led a few, with hypocrites even then in their midst, to withdraw themselves from the world, and cherish the untried virtues of secluded life?

Surely, after eighteen hundred years of experiment with that system which was to convert the world, men might point to some country, to some province, to some nation, and say, Behold the commencement of a converted world.

"But will not the gospel then prove a failure? That depends upon what is to be expected of it. If the gospel was to effect the eternal salvation of all mankind, then failing to accomplish that work is a failure of the gospel. If the gospel was to convert the world, then, if it is not done, it will prove a failure.

But if the gospel was preached `to take out of the Gentiles a people for His name', then it is not a failure. If it was given that God might in indefinite mercy and love `save some, ' then it is not a failure. If it was given that every repentant sinner might have eternal life, and that every good soldier might receive a crown of glory, then it is not a failure. If it was given that an innumerable company might be redeemed out of every nation, and kindred, and tongue under heaven, then it is not a failure. If it was given that the vales and hills of Paradise restored might teem with a holy throng who shall be `equal to the angels, and be the children of God, being the children of the resurrection, ' then it is not a failure. If it was given that the elect might be brought into one great family of holy ones, then it is not a failure.

And was not this its object, rather than the exaltation of a worldly church to the splendors of earthly prosperity, while beneath the theater of their easy triumph there slumber the ashes of prophets and the dust of the apostles? Are they to hold jubilee a thousand years, while the martyrs' unceasing cry, `How long! O Lord, ' goes up to God? Are they to have their songs of triumph, while the whole creation groaneth for deliverance, and while that longed-for day of the redemption of our body is postponed?

Nay, verily, the hope of the one body is one hope. The hope of the church stops not at death, it sweeps beyond earth's scenes of tempest and of storm, and reposes in the calm beamings of that Sun of Righteousness which shall glow above the bosom of Paradise regained."(Preface to Voice of Church)

The millennium of Rev.20 is to open with the revelation of the Son of God from Heaven, the destruction of the living wicked, the resurrection of the just, and the change to immortality of the living righteous.

It is a period in which Christ will reign personally with the just of all ages who have suffered with him. 2 Tim.2:12.

This period is bounded at each end with a resurrection. Christ plainly declares that "all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life, and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation." John 5:28, 29. And Paul testifies "that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust." Acts 24:15. But it is left to the Revelator to place these resurrections one thousand years apart, at each end of the millennium.


"And I saw [not a converted world, but] thrones [of judgment] and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them." Mention is then made of that portion of the martyrs of Jesus who had been beheaded, and also the victors over the beast, his image, and his mark, representing all the righteous; then is added, "They lived [were raised to life] and reigned with Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead [the wicked] lived not again [were not raised from the dead] until the thousand years were finished."


The doctrine of the temporal millennium being based upon false interpretations and incorrect quotations of certain portions of the sacred Scriptures, it is proper that we should here notice those texts usually quoted to prove the world's conversion, and show that they do not mean what they are said to prove.

1. "Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession." Ps.2:8. As sufficient evidence that this text does not prove the conversion of the world, we quote the verse following it: "Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel."

2. The stone cut out of the mountain without hands, shall roll until it becomes a great mountain, and fills the whole earth. All the proof for the world's conversion, found in the above, is in quoting the text wrong. Here is the text as it reads:


 "Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces. Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing-floors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth." Dan.2:34, 35.


In this remarkable portion of prophecy, the following points are worthy of notice:

(1) The stone smote the image upon his feet, and brake the iron, clay, brass, silver, and gold to pieces together. Here is destruction, not conversion.

(2) They became like the chaff of the summer threshing-floors, and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them. Here is illustrated the removal of all earthly governments.

(3) Then the stone became a great mountain and filled the whole earth. In this prophecy the stone has nothing in common with the image. The image, a symbol of earthly governments and all wicked men, is first removed, and then the stone fills the whole earth.

But if it be said that the dashing of the heathen, (Ps.2:9, ) and the breaking of the image (Dan.2:34, ) mean the conversion of the world, then Paul's words, "The God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly, " mean the conversion of Satan.

3. A nation shall be born in a day. Here is another incorrect quotation. Isa.66:8, reads: "Who hath heard such a thing? who hath seen such things? shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day? or shall a nation be born at once? for as soon as Zion travailed, she brought forth her children." This text has no allusion to the conversion of sinners; but evidently refers to the resurrection of the just.

4. "The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ." But let it be borne in mind that this is under the third woe, when it is also said, "And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth." Rev.11:15, 18.

5. "And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world, for a witness unto all nations, and then shall the end come." Matt.24:14.

Those who teach the world's conversion would have the gospel preached to all nations, every individual hear it, believe it, obey it, and all become holy by it. What then? the end? No; not until the world has enjoyed a sinless period of one thousand years. Some hold that the one thousand years of Rev.20 are prophetic, each day in the year representing a year, making three hundred and sixty-five thousand years. But the text does not say that every individual will even hear this gospel of the kingdom. It does not state that any one will be converted and made holy by it. And we find it far from intimating that a world would be converted, and remain so one thousand years, or three hundred and sixty-five thousand years. The text simply states,

(1) "And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world, "
(2) "For a witness unto all nations, "
(3) "And then [not one thousand years later, nor three hundred and sixty-five thousand; but then] shall the end come."

6. "They shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks; nation shall not lift up a sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more." Micah 4:3 See also Isa.2:4

Please notice that Micah 4:1, speaks of the exalted state of the professed church of Christ in the last days. Mountains mean earthly governments. The church, here represented by "the mountain of the Lord's house, " was to be exalted above the hills. It was to be established in the tops of the mountains.

Verses 2-5 is a statement, not of what the Lord declares would take place in the last days, but what the multitudes of popular professors, who are looking for the conversion of the world, would say. The statement commences thus: "And many nations shall come and say." Verse 2. It is man, not God, that says, "And they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks; nation shall not lift up a sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more." Verse 3.

But the Lord speaks in verses 6 and 7, as follows: "In that day, saith the Lord, will I assemble her that halteth, and I will gather her that is driven out, and her that I have afflicted." "In that day, " when "many nations" are prophesying of peace and safety, the Lord's remnant people are driven out and afflicted.

But we have more and very decisive testimony in regard to the state of the nations in the last days. The Lord speaks by his prophet thus: "Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles: Prepare war, wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near. Let them come up. Beat your ploughshares into swords, and your pruning-hooks into spears." Joel 3:9, 10.

Instead of the nations' no more lifting up the sword against each other, in the last days, "evil shall go forth from nation to nation, " and "the sword of the Lord shall devour from the one end of the land even to the other end of the land: no flesh shall have peace." Jer.12:12; 25:32.

This subject may appear still more clear and forcible by arranging what many nations say, and what the Lord says, side by side as follows:




And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and let us go up to the moutain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And he shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into poloughshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up a sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. Micah 4:2,3.
Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles; Prepare war, wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near. Let them come up. Beat your ploughshares into swords, and your pruninghooks into spears: let the weak say, I am strong. Assemble yourselves, and come, all ye heathen, and gather yourselves together round about; thither cause thy mighty ones to come down, O Lord. Let the heathen be wakened, and come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat; for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about. Joel 3:9-12

To this agree the words of Paul: "The day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night. For when they shall say, Peace and safety, then sudden destruction cometh upon them." 1 Thess.5:2, 3

How strikingly is this saying of peace and safety fulfilled in the preaching of the temporal millennium, the conversion of the world, and the prophecy of peace among the nations; while Scripture and facts combine to show that the world is sinking lower and lower, the wicked are waxing worse and worse, and the nations are making far greater preparations for war than at any former period.

7. All shall know the Lord, from the least to the greatest. Heb.8:11.

This is in the promise of the new covenant, and relates, first, to the condition of each individual with whom the new covenant is made; and, secondly, to the fullness of the blessings of the gospel when all are brought into harmony with God in the everlasting state. Both ideas are embraced in the promise. But that every individual will be converted, or that all of any generation this side of the immortal state, will be converted and come to the knowledge of God, the Scriptures do not teach.

This promise is made concerning those with whom the Lord makes the new covenant. Now, although everything has been done that can possibly be done to ratify the covenant, or make it of force, yet we cannot say that it is actually made with any individual until that individual is brought into covenant relation with God. But when men are so brought into covenant relation with him, according to the promise, the law of God is written on their hearts. Then they know God. John says, "And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments." 1 John 2:3. This, of course, cannot apply to the unconverted. None who remain impenitent are embraced in the promise.

8. The glory of the Lord shall fill the earth as the waters cover the sea.

"But as truly as I live, all the earth shall be filled with the glory of the Lord." Num.14:21. "They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain; for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea." Isa.11:9. "For the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea." Hab.2:14. "Blessed are the meek; for they shall inherit the earth." Matt.5:5.


This glorious state, however, is not brought about by the conversion of all men. It is introduced by the destruction of sinful men, the restitution of the earth to its condition as it came from the hand of the Creator, and the gift of immortality to the meek of all ages.

"For evil-doers shall be cut off; but those that wait upon the Lord, they shall inherit the earth. For yet a little while and the wicked shall not be; yea, thou shalt diligently consider his place, and it shall not be. But the meek shall inherit the earth, and shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace." Ps.37:9-11.


9. A New heavens and earth..

"For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind. But be ye glad and rejoice forever in that which I create; for behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a joy. And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my people; and the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying. . . . The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock; and dust shall be the serpent's meat. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain, saith the Lord." See Isa.65:17-25; also Chap. 11:6-923


This prophecy is said to be a figurative description of the condition of things during the temporal millennium. We, however, regard it as a prophetic description of the state of things after the restitution of the earth and man to their primeval glory.

Before the fall, man was upright, and the earth and all that God had created upon it, as viewed by the Creator, were seen to be "very good." Gen.1:31.

The Scriptures do not teach the annihilation of all things by the fires of the great day, and the creation of all new things for the future state. But they do distinctly teach the restitution of all things. Thus saith the great Restorer: "Behold, I make all things new." Rev.21:5. Isaiah and the Revelator both speak of the new heavens and the new earth. The prophet Isaiah is either giving a figurative description of a very happy condition of things in this mortal state, or he is portraying the literal glories of the restitution after the second advent and the resurrection of the just. To the figurative view we find serious objections:-

( 1) Our temporal millennium friends, in order that all parts of their figurative theory may harmonize, must have in their figurative new heavens and earth, figurative houses, figurative vineyards, and they must figuratively eat the figurative fruit thereof, and be obliged to suffer from figurative wolves, and figurative lions, figuratively feeding with figurative lambs and figurative bullocks, to say nothing of the presence of figurative serpents. But it is said that the gospel is to convert all these wolves, and lions, and serpents. Then we reply, that if they are converted, they are no longer wolves and lions and serpents, and during the entire period of the millennium there will be nothing but lambs and doves. Therefore, the prophecy has no reference to the temporal millennium. It must apply to some other period.

(2) The apostle has so clearly identified the three worlds, namely, the one before the flood, the one that now is, and the new earth which is to come, as to entirely preclude the figurative view. He says: ..

 "For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water; whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished. But the heavens and the earth which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men." "Nevertheless, we, according to his promise, look for new heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness." 2 Pet.3:5-7, 13.


No fact can be more plainly stated that that the world that perished by the flood is the same as that which now is, and is reserved unto fire. This is to be changed by fire, and then will appear the new heavens and the new earth, according to the promise of God. And it is a remarkable fact that the promise of God referred to by the apostle is found only in the sixty-fifth chapter of Isaiah.

Thus, the apostle links the three worlds together. Are the first two worlds literal? so is the third. Is the new earth, mentioned by Isaiah, figurative? So are all three worlds figurative. If they are all literal, then we see a harmony in Scripture respecting them. But if they be regarded as figurative, then we are left to the following conclusion:

In the days of figurative Noah, the figurative heavens and earth being overflowed by figurative water, perished figuratively. But the figurative heavens and earth which are now, are reserved unto figurative fire, against the figurative day of figurative judgment and figurative perdition of ungodly figurative men. Nevertheless, we, according to his figurative promise, look figuratively for figurative new heavens and new earth wherein dwelleth figurative righteousness.

True, the sacred writers use figures and parables. But we feel bound by sacred obligations to believe that God in his word means just what he says, unless the connections show good reasons why a figure or parable is introduced. If God does not mean what he says in his word, who will tell us what he does mean? In case that God does not mean what he says, the Bible ceases to be a revelation, and God should give us another book to teach what this one means. But the Bible is the very book in which he has plainly spoken, and revealed his truth to us.

With this view of the sacred Scriptures we see spread out before us the living realities of the new earth, in all their grandeur and glory, as when Adam was lord of Eden. Before the transgression, all was purity and peace, even amoung the beasts which God had created. And who can say that these, with natures such as the Creator first gave them, will not be in place in the earth restored from the fall, as well as in the earth before the fall? But when the figurative interpretation of the Scriptures is adopted, the new heavens and the new earth of Isaiah and the Revelation may be made to mean almost anything fancy may suggest. Such liberties taken with the word of God, have led the skeptic to say that the Bible is like a fiddle, on which any tune can be played at pleasure.

Having examined the principal texts quoted to prove the conversion of the world, and a period of universal peace and holiness in this mortal state, and seen that they do not mean what they are said to mean, we will now call attention to some of the many direct proofs that no such state of things can exist prior to the second advent.

1. The prevalence of the little horn...

"I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them, until the Ancient of Days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the Most High, and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom." Dan.7:21, 22. "But the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom forever, even forever and ever." Verse 18.


Here it will be seen that the little horn makes war with the saints until they take the kingdom; and when they once obtain the kingdom, they hold it forever, even forever and ever. Where, then, is there room for that period of peace and triumph of the church called the temporal millennium?

2. The apostasy.

"Now we beseech you, brethren, by the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and by our gathering together unto him, that ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand. Let no man deceive you by any means; for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that Man of Sin be revealed, the son of perdition, who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshiped; so that he, as God, sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God.
Remember ye not that when I was yet with you I told you these things? And now ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his time. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work; only he who now letteth will let, until he be taken out of the way. And then shall that wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming." 2 Thess.2:1-8.


The apostle is here speaking of the day of the coming of the Lord. He is guarding the church against deception in being led to expect the coming of Christ too soon. He states what must come before the appearing of the Lord. Is it the temporal millennium? the triumphs of the world's conversion? No; it is the sad apostasy, the falling away, and the manifestation of the Man of Sin, who will continue his blasphemy until the coming of the Son of Man, when he will be destroyed. Where, then, is room for one thousand years before the coming of the Lord, during which time all men will love and serve God?

3. The wicked continue with the righteous, as illustrated by the parable of the wheat and tares, until the end of the Christian age.

"Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of Heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field. But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way. But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. So the servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? from whence then hath it tares? He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them. Let both grow together until the harvest; and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them; but gather the wheat into my barn." Matt.13:24-30.



The friends of the modern doctrine of the world's conversion find this parable directly in their way, and they have wearied themselves in laboring to explain it away. But as our divine Lord, by special request, gave an explanation of it, modesty suggests that we accept his explanation, and there let the matter rest:


"Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house; and his disciples came unto him, saying, Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field. He answered and said unto them, He that soweth the good seed is the Son of Man; the field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one; the enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels. As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire, so shall it be in the end of this world. The Son of Man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity, and shall cast them into a furnace of fire; there shall 21 be wailing and gnashing of teeth. Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear." Verses 36-43.


We simply repeat, "The field is the world." "The good seed are the children of the kingdom." "The tares are the children of the wicked one." Let both grow together until the harvest." "The harvest is the end of the world."

4. Persecution and tribulation were to be the portion of the church of God in all ages. The apostle speaks of the faithful who had lived and suffered before,

" who "had trial of cruel mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and imprisonment; they were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain with the sword; they wandered about in sheepskins, and goatskins, being destitute, afflicted, tormented; (of whom the world was not worthy;) they wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth. And these all, having obtained a good report through faith, received not the promise, God having provided some better thing for us, that they without us should not be made perfect." Heb.11:36-40.


He also points to the future, and says: "Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution." 2 Tim.3:12.

5. The last days of human probation have been regarded as the favored period for the completion of the great work of converting the world. But the prophets of the Old Testament nowhere represent God as saying that the last days would be glorious. Jesus and the apostles of the New Testament never speak of the last days as a period of triumph to the church; but, rather, as the days of her peril, which demand especial watching; the days of her mourning, and tears, and importunate prayers for deliverance. Paul describes the last days thus:...

" "This know, also, that in the last days perilous times shall come; for men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, without natural affection, truce-breakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good, traitors, heady, high-minded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God; having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof. From such turn away." 2 Tim.3:1-5


6. Peter says: "There shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, and saying, Where is the promise of his coming?" 2 Pet.3:3, 4.

How could these scoffers arise and deny his coming, and persecutions and perils exist in the last days, if all were converted long before his coming?


7. The last days embrace the very last day, reaching down to the coming of the Son of Man. The days of the coming of the Son of Man, were to be like the days of Noah and of Lot. ...

 "And as it was in the days of Noe, so shall it be also in the days of the Son of Man. They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all. Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot; they did eat, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they builded; but the same day that Lot went out of Sodom, it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all. Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of Man is revealed." Luke 17:26-31..


Then the wickedness of the wicked was such that God could bear with them no longer. And when their measure of iniquity was full, he visited them in wrath. There is a wonderful similarity between the days of Noah and Lot, and ours. Then men were given up to the love of the things of this life, as they are at the present time.

Then they were abandoned to lust and crime, fitly illustrating the terrible records of our times. As God manifested his wrath then in flood and in fire, so now the vials of his wrath, unmingled with mercy, only wait for the interposing arm of mercy to be removed, when they will be poured out upon the ungodly.

8. Destruction, not conversion, awaits the world at the very time when many popular professors cherish the delusive hope of a good time coming.

They see no danger, and brand as fanatical alarmists those who obey the prophetic injunction, "Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy mountain; let all the inhabitants of the land tremble; for the day of the Lord cometh, for it is nigh at hand." Joel 2:1.

But, says the apostle: "When they shall say, Peace and safety, then sudden destruction cometh upon them." 1 Thess.5:2. At the very time when the Lord, by the prophet Joel, is saying, "Prepare war, wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up. Beat your ploughshares into swords, and your pruning-hooks into spears; let the weak say, I am strong, " chap. 3:9, 10, they are fulfilling the prophecy of Micah, which says, "And many nations shall come and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, . . . and they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks, nation shall not lift up a sword against nation; neither shall they learn war any more." Chap. 4:2, 3

9. The way to destruction is broad, and many go in it; and the way to life is narrow, and but few find it. When one asked Jesus, "Are there few that be saved?" he answered, "Strive to enter in at the strait gate; for many, I say unto you, will seek to enter in, and shall not be able." Luke 13:23, 24. Again it is recorded, "Enter ye in at the strait gate; for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat; because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it." Matt.7:13, 14.

The doctrine of the world's conversion, and that of universal salvation, are both directly opposed to this passage. The one has the way to life narrow at first, but growing wider, until all walk in it; while the other has the way to life always wide enough for all the world. To be of real service to Universalism, the text should read: Wide is the gate, and broad is the way that leadeth to life, and all go in thereat; because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto destruction, and none can find it. But our Lord states a great fact in this passage, which existed when spoken, ever had existed, and which would exist until the close of probation; namely, that the way to destruction was broad and many would go in it; and that the way to life was narrow, and few would find it.

But when the few of each successive generation, from righteous Abel to the close of probation, who have bent their lonely footsteps in the narrow path to Mount Zion, shall reach their everlasting rest, they will constitute that "great multitude which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, " arrayed in Heaven's purity and brightness. Not one of these had come out of that imaginary period of a converted world. No, not one. What an imposing scene!

"And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, What are these which are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they? And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said unto me. These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb." Rev.7:13, 14.

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